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India Torture Update: Odisha, November 2018

Across India, cases of torture in police and judicial custody continue to be reported on regular basis including of women.

Emblematic cases of torture in police custody

On 22 November 2018, a 45-year-old man identified as Arvind Yadav died under suspicious circumstances in the custody of Makkhanpur Police Station in Firozabad district of Uttar Pradesh. The deceased, a resident of Chamroli village of Firozabad district, was arrested and taken into custody by police after he stabbed another villager Avnish Yadav during a quarrel between them on 20 November 2018. On 22 November 2018 at around 9:00 a.m. police officials took the deceased to district hospital, Firozabad, where the doctors declared him dead on arrival. The brother of the deceased alleged that his brother Arvind Yadav was beaten to death in police custody and demanded action against the accused police personnel.[1]

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On 22 November 2018, another youth identified as Raju Gupta (30) was killed in the custody of police in Agra district of Uttar Pradesh. The deceased, a resident of Gailana under Sikandara police station limits in Agra district, was arrested by Sikandara Police on 21 November 2018 pursuant to a complaint filed by his neighbor Anshul Kumar Singh, a businessman, accusing the deceased of stealing jewellery from his home. On 22 November 2018, when his condition deteriorated he was taken to the SN Medical College, Agra where the doctors declared him brought dead. Mrs Renu Lata, mother of the deceased, alleged that his son was beaten to death by Sikandara police to extract a confession of theft. She claimed that her deceased son had informed her on 22 November 2018 when she went to visit him at the Sikandara Police Station that police had been beating him brutally to force him to admit the allegation of theft. She also alleged that police did not inform her about the death of her son for several hours although she was at the police station on that day.[2]

On 22 November 2018, Crime Branch officials from Unit-I, PCMC in Pune city of Maharashtra picked up Ishtiyak alias Mushtaq Malahu Khan, owner of Fabia Steel situated at Khed Shivapur village under Pune district from his scrap unit along with his six employees – Sumeet Yadav, Abdul Shaheed Salam Khan, Rakesh Gautam, Mohammad Khan, Abdul Khan, and Wasim Khan and kept them in illegal detention for three days. Khan alleged that the crime branch officials subjected him and his employees to third degree torture including beatings and electric shock. They also threatened him to implicate him and his men in false cases. He alleged that he and his men were released only after he paid Rs 8.5 lakh to the crime branch officials.[3]

On 19-21 November 2018, three minor boys were tortured at Kotra police station in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. The minor victims were detained illegally for three days at the police station in connection with a case of theft of a bike. The victims sustained injuries and the horrendous incident came into light only after a video showing multiple injury marks and bruises on their bodies went viral in social media.[4]

On 18 November 2018, at least 23 villagers including women were illegally detained and tortured by the Indian Army personnel at Longkhojan village under Longding District of Arunachal Pradesh. The victims alleged that on 18 November 2018 evening a group of army personnel from Dhangrikumar in Charaideo district of Assam conducted a search operation in Longkhojan without being accompanied by civil police and without informing the Gaon Burah (village chief). The army personnel misbehaved with both men and women and used unparliamentarily words during the search operation. The victims were forcefully dragged into the school playground and were made to kneel down with folded hands and spend the whole night without food, water and warm clothes despite it being chilling cold. The security forces also beat up many of the victims including former Longkhojan Gaon Panchayat Member Rankai Apesam, Baptist church pastor Lempo Wangjen and a woman. All of them sustained injuries. The villagers were released on the next morning only after obtaining seal and sign from the Gaon Burah on a blank paper.[5]

On 13 November 2018, a 19-year-old youth identified as Md Aboy died in police custody in Manipur’s capital Imphal under mysterious circumstances. The deceased, a resident of Erong Khunou area in Thoubal district, was in police custody in connection with a case of death of a 16-year-old Muslim girl of the same locality, who hanged to death on 10 October 2018. The deceased allegedly committed suicide by hanging from a ceiling fan on 13 November 2018 morning at the state-run juvenile home at Takyel area in Imphal where he had been lodged on 12 November on the directions of a juvenile court.[6]

On 5 November 2018 at about 11.30 pm, Sub-Inspector Praful Giri and constable Shailesh Parsekar attached to Pernem police station in Goa tortured a 21-year-old youth Kapil Satelkar for taking a no-entry. Satelkar alleged that the constable abused him in filthy language even as the SI pulled him off his motorbike and slapped him. The constable also assaulted him with kicks on his back and stomach. The duo then dragged him for 20 meters and forcibly put him in the police jeep. The abuse and assault continued till they reached the Arambol outpost. He was then taken to Pernem police station and later to the primary health centre where the doctor did not provide him with even first-aid at the behest of the police officers. Pursuant to a complaint filed by the victim, commission member A D Salkar held that prima facie the allegations appear to be very serious in nature. The notice issued to the director general of police, superintendent of police (North), health officer of the primary health centre in Parsem calling for reports stated: “This incident, in my opinion, must be viewed with all seriousness, as such incidents reflects very badly on the image of police machinery.” The case is slated for hearing on 20 December 2018. [7]

On 4 November 2018, a 28-year-old youth was tortured to death by two constables posted at the police outpost under Madha Police Station in Solarpur district of Maharashtra. On 4 November 2018 night at about 8.30 the deceased Pradeep Kalyan Kute, a tractor driver, was playing loud music while travelling in his tractor at Manegaon near Madha, off the Mumbai-Hyderabad national highway. Two constables posted at the police outpost questioned the deceased about the loud music and asked him to come to the police outpost. The deceased was later found unconscious in the outpost and was taken to a private hospital in Madha, where the doctors declared him brought dead. The family members alleged that Kute died after he was thrashed severely by the two constables at the police outpost. On 5 November, the police booked the two accused constables on charges of murder of the deceased.[8]

On 3 November 2018, a youth identified as Swaminathan (39) was allegedly beaten to death in the custody of Kozhikode Medical College police in Kerala. The deceased, a resident of Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, was arrested by police personnel from the Medical College Police station from Kuttikattur area in Kozhikode on 3 November 2018 pursuant to a complaint lodged by local residents accusing the deceased of stealing from a metal shop. The police claimed that the deceased was taken to the Kozhikode Medical College Hospital as he complained of physical discomfort soon after arrest. They further claimed that he died shortly after admission at the hospital. However, the family members alleged that the deceased was arrested on 2 November 2018 and he succumbed to his injuries sustained due to torture by the police while in police custody.[9]

On 31 October 2018, a 21-year-old Dalit youth, Balraj Singh, was tortured to death at Gidderbaha police station under Muktsar district of Punjab. The deceased was arrested from Mohali by Gidderbaha police on 31 October 2018 pursuant to a complaint filed by the father of a 16-year-old girl with whom the deceased had allegedly eloped. Police had registered a case against Balraj Singh under Section 363 and 366 IPC. The police claimed that the deceased committed suicide by hanging himself with the nara (rope used in a dress) of his lower at the police station lock room on 31 October 2018. The father of the deceased Mr Pappu Singh alleged that his son was killed by the police after beating him brutally and hanged his dead body to look it like a case of suicide.[10]

Torturous prison conditions and deaths in judicial custody

On 22 November 2018, the Supreme Court lashed out at the Centre and States over pathetic conditions in the jails across the country, saying that everything has been reduced to a “joke”. A bench of Justice Madan B. Lokur and Justice Deepak Gupta said: “Please visit the jails and the observation homes for children to see the condition. Ask your officials to get out of their offices to see the condition in the jails. Taps are not working, toilets are not working. They are all blocked…they are in a pathetic condition. Ask them to have a look, then they will realise the pathetic condition they (prisoners) are living in.[11]

The apex court said that among India’s prison population, undertrial prisoners accounted for 62% against the world average of 18-20%. The court noted that this statistic raised questions about the humaneness of our system.[12]

The court also expressed concern about the facilities given to Justice Amitava Roy, a retired judge of the Supreme Court, who is heading a committee appointed to review the cases of undertrial prisoners. The court has sought details of the infrastructure for the committee.[13]

In March 2018, the court’s amicus curiae Gaurav Agrawal submitted that 240 jails in the country were housing inmates 150% above their capacity. His report said that out of the 77,000 sanctioned posts in the prisons department, 24,500 were vacant. Mr. Agrawal said Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh were some of the worst cases in the prison staff-inmate ratio. Only 5,000 prison staffers monitored over 92,000 inmates in Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu had 4,000 prison staffers to monitor 13,000 prisoners.[14]

The observations by the apex court came during the hearing of a suo motu case in respect of pathetic conditions in a jail and observation home in Haryana’s Faridabad city as personally found by Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel and Justice U U Lalit of the Supreme Court during a surprise visit to the detention facilities in Faridabad.  Invited by the Haryana Legal Services Authority to a function earlier this year, Justices Goel and Lalit had on their own also visited the jail and Observation Home and found the situation was pathetic. Taking cognisance of the findings by the two justices, a bench of then Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, Justices A M Khanwilkar and D Y Chandrachud had on 13 July 2018 issued directions for taking immediate measures to improve the condition in Faridabad Jail and Observation Home. [15]

Earlier on 1 November 2018, the National Human Rights Commission had summoned the State Chief Secretary and the Inspector General of Police (prisons) of Uttar Pradesh for not responding properly to notices issued by it in respect of deaths of over 2,000 prisoners in the state’s overcrowded jails in the past five years. NHRC has directed the two senior officials to appear in person before it on 12 December 2018. In its order the NHRC stated: “No reports have been submitted by the concerned authorities despite warning of coercive process. In ordinary course the Commission would have issued summons for their personal appearance but one more opportunity is granted to them for submission of requisite reports. Exercising its power given U/S 13 (a) of Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, the Commission directs that the Inspector General of Prisons, Uttar Pradesh and Chief Secretary, Uttar Pradesh be summoned to appear in person on 12.12.2018 to produce the required information / documents”.[16]

Earlier, in its order dated 29 July 2018, NHRC had sought details from the state government of Uttar Pradesh concerning human rights of prisoners, including appointment of doctors and para-medical staff in prisons.

The notices for personal appearances of the Chief Secretary and the Inspector General (Prisons) were issued pursuant to a complaint lodged by an Agra-based human rights activist, Naresh Paras, regarding the number of deaths in prisons due to overcrowding, poor healthcare, lack of basic amenities and non-compliance of norms by jail authorities.[17]

On 25 November 2018, some inmates of Raebareli jail in Uttar Pradesh alleged about getting death threats from senior jail officials and the Special Task Force (STF) officers. In a video clip that had gone viral on social media, a prisoner Anshu Dixit claimed that he along with fellow inmates Sohrab Khan and D S Singh were being threatened by jail officials and senior STF personnel. Naming all the officers, Dixit cautioned if he or his fellow inmates were killed, an FIR must be registered against them. In a separate video, Dixit and his fellow inmates allegedly showed the poor quality of food being offered inside the jail and further claimed that a parallel canteen was being run inside the prison premises. They alleged that in the other canteen, besides sweets and aloo paratha, cigarettes and other things are available. This facility is availed by a large number of inmates and lakhs of rupees are earned every day. The money is shared from bottom to the top.[18]

The revelation came a day after six jail officials, including a senior jail superintendent were suspended for failing to check the clandestine entry of liquor and firearms inside the prison.[19]

Cases of deaths and torture in judicial custody 

Deaths of prisoners as a result of torture and ill treatment in the jails are a regular phenomenon.

On 29 November 2018, an under-trial prisoner identified as Ramesh died under suspicious conditions in the custody of Sunaria jail in Rohtak district of Haryana. The deceased, a resident of Kalan village of Makrauli, was lodged at Sunaria jail to serve a jail term in a case of death of a person due to rash driving by him. He died on 29 November 2018 at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (PGIMS) Hospital, Rohtak. Jail officials claimed that on 28 November 2018 the deceased was rushed to PGIMS Hospital, Rohtak following sudden deterioration of his health and he died during treatment.[20]

On 28 November 2018, a convict prisoner Amit Kalra died under suspicious circumstances in the custody of Kathua district Jail in Jammu and Kashmir. The deceased, a resident of Sarwal village of Jammu, was serving a prison term. Jail officials claimed that on 28 November 2018 the deceased was rushed to Kathua district hospital following deterioration of his health and he died at the hospital. However, as per the doctors at the district hospital, the deceased was brought dead to the hospital and there was no opportunity for treatment.[21]

On 27 November 2018, a 21-year-old under-trial prisoner identified as S. Jayamoorthy was allegedly tortured to death in the custody of Kalapet Central Jail in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The deceased, a resident of Cuddalore district, was arrested and remanded into judicial custody on 21 November 2018 in connection with a theft case. The jail officials claimed that on 27 November 2018, the deceased suddenly fell ill and was admitted to the Indira Gandhi Government General Hospital in Pondicherry where he died during treatment. However, the family members of the deceased alleged that Jayamoorthy died due to severe beatings by the jail officials inside the prison. They protested demanding action against the jail officials responsible for his death.[22]

On 26 November 2018, a prisoner identified as Moinudeen Abdul Sirajmiya Shaikh alias Mesu (35) died in the custody of Taloja jail in Raigad district of Maharashtra. The deceased, a resident of Wadala of Mumbai, was arrested from Kolkata on 20 November 2017 by Crime Branch unit II in connection with a heist in a Bank of Baroda branch in Navi Mumbai on 13 November 2017.[23]

On 25 November 2018, an under-trial prisoner identified as Amol Dnyaneshwar Kamble (30) was allegedly tortured to death at Pune Yerawada central jail in Maharashtra. The deceased, a resident of Bibvewadi in Pune city was arrested on 10 October 2018 and sent to judicial custody in connection with a case of assault. He died on 25 November 2018 inside the jail. Jail officials claimed that the deceased was in the habit of demanding tobacco and cigarette from other inmates. They said the deceased was kept under observation at the jail hospital for treatment after he vomited on 25 November 2018 at around 11am. It was stated that while lying at the jail hospital bed the deceased allegedly put a towel around his neck and tied its knot on a door between 4 pm and 4.45 pm and that he died accidentally. However, the uncle of the deceased Deepak Jadhav and activist Milind Rajhans alleged that Kamble was killed by jail officials and demanded registration of a case of murder against the jail officials responsible for his death.[24]

On 23 November 2018, a convict prisoner identified as Sikandar lodged in Jail Number 2 of Tihar Central prison, Delhi was found dead under suspicious circumstances. Prison officials claimed that the deceased had a cardiac arrest and fell. The body had blood clot on his forehead and nose. However, the deceased’s wife, Mehrunissa, claimed her husband had called her couple of days earlier from another inmate’s phone that was kept hidden in the cell and asked her to arrange for Rs 16,000 urgently to pay to one Balraj. She said he asked her to leave the money with a tea-seller near the jail and said it would reach him. She said she suspected her husband was murdered since he was having a dispute with a few other inmates. She also stated that three months earlier he was attacked by them and had to be hospitalised with serious injuries to his ears.[25]

On 23 November 2018, an under-trial prisoner identified as Imtiyaz Bashir Shaikh died in the custody of Navsari sub-jail in Gujarat under suspicious conditions. The deceased, a resident of Dharagiri village under Navsari district, was arrested three months ago allegedly for demolishing/destroying the pillars in the fencing of the village temple complex. On 23 November 2018 morning the deceased who was lodged in Barrack No. 9 allegedly committed suicide. The jail officials claimed that the deceased slashed veins of his both hands and legs with a blade leading to profuse bleeding. They said the deceased was immediately rushed to the civil hospital where he died during treatment. However, the jail administration had no answer as to how the blade allegedly used by the deceased reached inside the jail.[26]

On 23 November 2018, another under-trial prisoner identified as Jagsir Singh, a resident of Alamwala village under Muktsar district, died in the custody of Muktsar district jail in Punjab due to alleged torture by police during arrest.  He was booked by Kabarwala police station on 29 October 2018 for allegedly carrying 4 gram heroin. He remained absconding, but police succeeded to arrest him on 20 November 2018.  He died on 23 November 2018 under mysterious circumstances. Jail officials claimed that the deceased was a drug addict and he died due to ‘some fit’ as an acute symptom of withdrawal of drug. However, the family members alleged that the deceased died as a result of severe beatings by a large number of policemen at the time of his arrest on 20 November.[27]

On 21 November 2018, an under-trial prisoner Govardhan Pujahar died under suspicious circumstances at Dumka Central Jail in Jharkhand. The deceased, a resident of Jama of Dumka district, was arrested and sent to judicial custody on 19 November 2018 in connection with a case of beating and physical assault. The deceased allegedly committed suicide on 21 November 2018 by hanging himself. Jail officials claimed that the deceased was suffering from epilepsy. On 21 November 2018 evening during counting before bedtime the jail officials found one inmate missing. On checking and searching the jail premises, the dead body of the deceased was found hanging by a rope inside the under-construction jail hospital building.[28]

On 16 November 2018, a 38-year-old undertrial prisoner Surinder Kumar died under mysterious circumstances at Ludhiana Central Jail in Punjab. The deceased, a resident of Chawa village of Gurdaspur district, was arrested and sent to judicial custody under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS Act) on 16 October 2018.  He died under mysterious circumstances on 16 November 2018 morning.[29]

On 14 November 2018, a 73-year-old prisoner Tanik Singh alias Avadh Kishor Prasad Singh lodged at Camp Prison, Bhagalpur in Bihar died for want of medical treatment. The deceased, a resident of Lohanda village of Sikandara thana area under Jamui district of Bihar, was serving life imprisonment after conviction in a murder case. In 2015, the deceased was shifted to Camp Jail from Munger district Jail. The deceased who was stated to be a diabetic, died on 14 November 2018 evening while being taken to Mayanganj Hospital, Bhagalpur.[30]

On 8 November 2018, a prisoner identified as Hemraz (58) died under mysterious circumstances in the custody of Pilibhit district jail in Uttar Pradesh. The deceased, a resident of Itaroda village under Bisalpur Kotwali area in Pilibhit district, was serving a sentence of murder since 8 December 2016. The jail officials claimed that on 8 November 2018 the deceased fell sick. As his health suddenly deteriorated he was admitted to the district hospital, Pilibhit, where he was declared dead. However, daughter of the deceased Mrs Kamlesh accused the jail administration of killing his father. She said her father’s body bore several injury marks, including on his face and eyes. She said she saw a deep cut on the nose of his father while blood was found oozing out from behind his head.[31]

On 5 November 2018, a 50-year-old undertrial prisoner lodged at Dumka district Jail in Jharkhand died allegedly due to want of medical treatment. The deceased identified as Joan Tudu, a resident of Kormo village of Gopikandar block in Dumka district, was sent to judicial custody on 10 October 2018 in connection with a case of fraud. The jail officials claimed that on 4 November 2018 morning the deceased was admitted to the ICU ward of Sadar Hospital, Dumka after he complained of acute chest pain. He died during treatment due to heart failure. However, the family members of the deceased accused the jail authorities of being negligent. They alleged jail officials did not provide timely treatment to the deceased.[32]

On 4 November 2018, a 30-year-old undertrial prisoner identified as Ashok Sharma died in the custody of Taloja jail in Raigad district of Maharashtra under mysterious circumstances. The jail officials claimed that the deceased was lodged at Taloja jail on 3 November 2018 at around 11 pm. On 4 November 2018 at around 12.05 am he was admitted to the prison hospital on complaints of sickness. As he complained of giddiness he was taken to and admitted at NMMC hospital in Vashi, Navi Mumbai at about 7.05 pm on the same day. According to the doctors at the NMMC hospital, the deceased died within 25 minutes of his admission. The deceased was arrested on 29 October 2018 in connection with a robbery case for assaulting and robbing an Ola cab driver. He was booked under Section 394 of IPC for voluntarily causing hurt while committing a robbery.[33]

Torture and rape of women in custody 

Despite numerous Supreme Court judgments and enactment of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013, women continue to face torture and sexual violence at the hands of the law enforcement personnel.

Case 1: Rape and blackmail of a rape survivor by a sub-inspector of police, Bhiwandi, Maharashtra[34]

On 22 November 2018, a 26-year-old rape survivor filed a complaint against a police sub-inspector for raping and blackmailing her. Since the filing of the complaint the accused cop identified as Rohan Ganjari, posted with the Kongaon police station under Bhiwandi zone in Thane district, had been absconding. The survivor stated that she approached the Kongaon police in 2017 and sought to register an FIR against one Rabiya and one of Rabiya’s male friend who had raped her. She alleged that Rabiya called her to her home for discussion, served juice laced with sedatives and then she was raped by a friend of Rabiya while she recorded the act on her mobile phone. Rabiya then began blackmailing her and demanded Rs 50,000. But the cops added the name of Satish, who is the survivor’s boy friend falsel in the FIR and thereafter, Ganjari had arrested Satish and put him behind bars. Ganjari then demanded sexual favours to remove Satish’s name from the FIR. The survivor alleged that on 8 August 2018, Ganjari took her to a Kalyan lodge and raped her. Before that, he made sure he had her signature on a statement saying she had a physical relationship with him by her own consent. Ganjari began demanding sexual favours regularly, forcing her to approach the Kongaon police against him.

Case 2: Alleged torture of two sisters by police, Nayapalli police station, Bhubaneswar 

On 6 May 2018, two sisters – residents of Behera Sahi under Nayapalli police limits in Odisha’s capital Bhubaneswar were allegedly tortured in detention at the Nayapalli police station. The victims claimed the police had dragged both of them to the police station following a group clash over land dispute and confined them to a room at the police station for around two hours. They said that during detention the police officials including the inspector in charge beat them up with plastic pipes. The two sisters sustained injuries on their bodies, photographs of which they then uploaded in social media.[35]

The inspector-in-charge of Nayapalli police station, Sangram Patnaik, and two women sub-inspectors, Minati Nayak and Sasmita Dhal, were transferred to Reserve Police hours after the video uploaded by the victims went viral social media. The transfers were done following a directive from Odisha’s Director General of Police Rajendra Prasad Sharma in connection with the viral video.[36]

The two sisters appeared before the OHRC and filed a separate petition alleging police brutalities on them. They alleged that inspector-in-charge of Nayapalli police station tried to molest them.[37] On 29 June 2018, the Odisha Human Rights Commission directed the former Nayapalli Inspector in Charge and the two women police officials to depose before it on 10 July 2018 in connection with the viral video that featured the two sisters assaulted by the cops.[38]

Case 3: NHRC asks for Action Taken Report on alleged sexual predation of a minor girl by police in Odisha

In the last week of October 2018, the NHRC directed the Jajpur Superintendent of Police to furnish an Action Taken Report on the alleged sexual predation of a minor girl by a police officer of inspector rank. The rights panel, acting on a petition moved by Sangita Swain, secretary of Angul-based Human Rights Watch organization, asked the Jajpur SP for initiating appropriate penal action against the Kaliapani police station Inspector-in-Charge.[39]

The accused police officer had allegedly meted out physical and mental torture on the victim girl. A complaint in this regard had been lodged with the local police on 26 May 2018. However, police did not act on it. The copies of the complaint were also submitted to the Jajpur SP and DGP but no action was taken against the accused IIC.[40]

Judiciary’s action against torture in November 2018

The judiciary regularly adjudicates cases of illegal, unjustified and unwarranted arrests, extracting confession from innocent persons for offences which they have never committed, by way of custodial violence.

The emblematic cases are given below 

Case 1: CBI begins probe into the killing of 12 persons, including five minors by police in a fake encounter in Palamu district of Jharkhand[41]

In November 2018, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) had filed a case in the killing of 12 people, including five minors, in a fake encounter in Jharkhand’s Palamu district in June 2015 pursuant to directions from the Jharkhand High Court to probe the killings. The police had termed the deceased as Maoists.

A petition filed by Jawahar Yadav before the High Court stated that in June 2015, his son and some other relatives were sleeping on the roof of the house when at about 10 pm, some men on motorcycles barged into his home and forcibly took them away. On June 10, he learnt that his son Uday, relative Neeraj Yadav and 10 others alleged to belong to a banned Maoist organization “Jharkhand Jan Mukti Parishad” were killed by security forces in an encounter. He stated that none of the deceased, including his son and Neeraj Yadav was ever associated with any Maoist activities.

On the other hand, the police had claimed in its FIR that Maoists travelling in vehicles had fired at cops and a CRPF’s CoBRA team to which they retaliated. The cops said they had recovered rifles and carbines from the alleged Maoists. However, the operation came under the scanner after some senior police officers i.e. then DIG Hemant Toppo of Palamu district and then officer in-charge of Sadar police station, Harish Chand Patnaik, claimed that such an encounter never happened.

While ordering a CBI probe, a bench of Justice Rongon Mukhopadhyay noted: “The photographs, which have been produced and also brought on record, do create a doubt on the facts placed by the police regarding the encounter. It is indeed surprising that all of 12 bodies were kept in a line as if somebody had brought the dead bodies from some other place and arranged it in a queue”.

Case 2: Brutal torture of Dalits at Rapur village in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh[42]

On 14 November 2018, the Hyderabad High Court issued notices to the Chief Secretary, principal secretaries of home and social welfare, Director General of Police of Andhra Pradesh, Nellore District Collector, the Rapur SI, the Gudur division DSP and others for filing detailed counter affidavits in the petition filed alleging brutal attack and torture of Dalits by police at Rapur village in Nellore district on 1 August 2018.

Justice AV Sesha Sai was dealing with the petition filed by R Rama Chandraiah and others from Scheduled Caste community seeking registration of a case against the police personnel responsible for the alleged brutal, physical and mental torture of petitioners and others on the day of the incident. The petitioners urged the court to entrust the case either to Central Bureau of Investigation or a probe by a Special Investigation Team.

Case 3: Delhi High Court sentences 16 former policemen to life imprisonment in the Hashimpura massacre, Uttar Pradesh[43]

Over three decades after the Hashimpura massacre in Uttar Pradesh in which 38 Muslims were shot dead in cold blood, the Delhi High Court on 31 October 2018 sentenced 16 former policemen to life imprisonment, holding it was a “targeted killing” of “unarmed, innocent and defenceless” persons.

Reversing a trial court order of 2015 that acquitted the 16 guilty police personnel, who were with the Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC), a bench of Justices S Muralidhar and Vinod Goel termed the case as an instance of custodial killing where the legal system was unable to effectively prosecute the perpetrators of gross human rights abuses. The court noted that it was conscious that for the families of those killed, this was perhaps “too little, too late” as they have had to wait for 31 years for justice.

Around 42 to 45 Muslim men, old and young, were rounded up by the PAC from Hashimpura area in Meerut city on 22 May 1987 and taken away into the armed forces’ truck. The victims were shot at two different locations by the PAC personnel with .303 rifles and the bodies were thrown into two canals – Gang nahar and Hindon River. The court concluded that 38 detainees were killed while five survived to recount the horrific tale. The dead bodies of just 11 of them were able to be identified later by their relatives while the remaining bodies were not recovered.

Holding that the deaths of the victims were “custodial deaths”, the court said although they were not taken to an enclosed place by the PAC, they were unlawfully detained, kept in a PAC truck and taken to two places and asked to keep their heads down and not allowed to move.

The court directed the convicts to surrender by 22 November, failing which the SHO concerned would immediately take them into custody. The 16 former cops were held guilty for the offences of murder, kidnapping, criminal conspiracy and destruction of evidence under the IPC.

The case was transferred to Delhi on a Supreme Court direction in September 2002 following a petition by the families of the massacre victims and survivors.

Interventions by the NHRC/SHRCs during November 2018

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and the State Human Rights Commissions (SHRCs) are mandated to address human rights violations and continue to intervene against cases of torture. As per latest data available, the National Human Rights Commission registered a total of 6,294 fresh cases while it disposed of a total of 7,479 cases (Fresh + Old) during October 2018. A total of 21,158 cases (Fresh + Old) were under consideration of the commission till end of the month.[44] A large number of complaints relate to torture.

In October 2018, the NHRC has awarded a total of Rs 1,20,90,000 in 70 cases of human rights violations, including 22 cases of deaths in judicial custody and 1 case of deaths in police custody; 7 cases of abuse of power and 3 cases of unlawful detention.[45]

Some of the emblematic cases of interventions are given below. 

Case 1: NHRC calls for Action Taken Report in respect of torture and ill treatment of tribal people during their forcible eviction in Angul district 

On 2 November 2018, the National Human Rights Commission has asked for additional information from the concerned authorities[46] in respect of severe torture of more than 50 tribal people and their family members by police and administrative officials during forcible eviction from Saanda, Bankuli, Hensala, Magarmana, Jaganathpur villages under the Khamar police station in Angul district of Odisha on 11 August 2018.[47]

Taking cognisance of petition filed Sangita Swain, Secretary, Human Rights Watch, the National Human Rights Commission registered a case (No. 4465/18/16/2018) and sought for an action-taken report from the Odisha Human Rights Commission with regard to their allegations. In her petition, Swain alleged that victims Babuli Sahoo, Chakradhar Sahoo, Nirakara Sahoo, Bidhan Behera, Maheswara Sethy, Bauri Sethy, Tanaka Dhara Sahoo, Sridhara Sahoo, Gulap Sethy, Lipun Garnaik, Siba Dalei along with other 50 villagers and their families of Saanda, Bankuli, Hensala, Magarmana, Jaganathpur villages under the Khamar police station in Angul district were illegally evicted from the forest land and severely tortured by the police and administrative authorities under political influence.[48]

The petition stated that police and administrative official had beaten up the tribal people to forcibly evict them from their villages and it sought appropriate penal actions against the responsible police and administrative officials.[49]

Case 2: NHRC asks Odisha government to file ATR about police attack on lawyers[50]

In October 2018, the National Human Rights Commission had sought an action-taken report from the Chief Secretary and DGP of Odisha over the brutal attack by police personnel on two lawyers in the state. The rights panel issued the order pursuant to a petition filed by Supreme Court lawyer and rights activist Radhakanta Tripathy.

In his petition filed before the NHRC, Mr Tripathy alleged that on 28 August 2018, lawyer Debi Prasanna Pattnaik was allegedly beaten up by police personnel in public view at Shastri Nagar in Nuabazar area of Cuttack while another lawyer Subhrakant Satpathy was assaulted by cops when he objected to the brutality of cops on an old man at Baleswar railway station on 13 September 2018. Mr Satpathy went to the railway station at 11.30 pm to see off his relatives. Mr Patnaik was attacked by a few police officials following a verbal duel near Nua Bazaar Bridge. He sustained critical injuries in the attack and was later admitted to the SCB Medical College Hospital for treatment.

Case 3: NHRC awards compensation to victims of torture by Special Protection Group personnel engaged in anti Maoist operations[51]

In February 2018, the National Human Rights Commission awarded compensation to two tribal men assaulted by Special Protection Group (SPG) jawans engaged in anti-Maoist operations in Nuapada district of Odisha. The rights panel asked the state government to award compensation of Rs 1 lakh to each of the victims, who were allegedly meted out third degree torture on suspicion of being Maoist informers.

The SPG personnel picked up three tribal youths on 18 August 2015 from Loharpali village under Khadiala block in the district on suspicion of being Maoist sympathisers. They detained the trio, alleging that they were providing feedback to the ultras on combing operation by security forces. While one of the youth identified as Sahu died in custody, Nurtyan Nayak and Narendra suffered life-threatening injuries.

As the tale of torture became public, the state government was forced to initiate coercive action by arresting the four jawans accused of torturing the villagers. The jawans – Khushi Ram Bhoi, Kamdev Pradhan, S. Kujur and Pramod Jagdala – are currently facing trial and have been placed under suspension. The state government had earlier awarded Rs 10 lakh ex-gratia compensation to family members of the deceased. It had also borne Nayak’s treatment cost amounting to Rs 2,88,214.

The award for compensation was given pursuant to a petition filed by rights activist Radhankanta Tripathy who had earlier drawn the attention of the rights panel on the para-military forces’ custodial torture on the victims.

Case 4: Tamil Nadu SHRC awards compensation of Rs 10 lakh to NoK of deceased CRPF personnel in Vellore district and recommends action against accused cops[52]

In November 2018, the Tamil Nadu State Human Rights Commission directed four policemen including the Deputy Superintendent of Police to pay a compensation of Rs 10 lakh to the wife of a retired Central Reserve Police Force personnel five years after her husband was tortured to death in police custody in Gudiyatham taluk police station in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. The Commission also recommended that the State government initiate disciplinary action against policemen and Dr K.Selvaraj, police surgeon, professor of forensic medicine, Government Vellore Medical College, Vellore.

The order was given by the SHRC while disposing off a petition filed by G. Sumalatha, wife of the deceased. She submitted that on 19 September 2013 her husband Gopal (43) who had retired as havildar from the CRPF was in his poultry farm when two constables from Gudiyatham taluk police station came there and took him to the police station to interrogate him in connection with the murder of a person. The policemen did not produce him in the court but informed her that he died on 1 October 2013, at about 6.00 pm in the police station.

The complainant further stated that the exact reason for his death was not disclosed to her while her husband was healthy at the time of arrest. She sought action against K.Sundaram, DSP, Gudiyatham sub-division, M. Muralidharan, inspector, K. Inbarasan, SSI and S. Umachandran, head constable, Gudiyatham taluk police station, Vellore district.

Denying the allegations, the policemen stated that the deceased had been arraigned as an accused in the murder of Sugumaran, government higher secondary school teacher. He, along with others, was arrested at Gudiyatham bus stand and brought to the police station for enquiry. The cops claimed that Gopal became unconscious and was rushed to the primary health centre at Melpatti. Following the advice of the doctor he was shifted to Gudiyatham where he was declared as brought dead.

SHRC member Justice D. Jayachandran said that police had not come forward to disclose how Gopal died in police custody. The commission suspected that Gopal was beaten severely by police. Holding them responsible for his death, the Justice Jayachandran directed the policemen to pay a compensation of Rs 10 lakh to Sumalatha and recommended the government to initiate disciplinary action against the policemen and Dr K.Selvaraj.

Case 5: Tamil Nadu SHRC awards Rs 1 lakh compensation to A. Rajinikanth, victim of torture[53]

In November 2018, the Tamil Nadu State Human Rights Commission directed two policemen to pay a compensation of Rs 1 lakh to A. Rajinikanth on charges of implicating him in false criminal case and assaulting him in custody. He was forcefully stripped in the police station.

The order was given by SHRC Member, Justice D. Jayachandran, in a petition filed by the victim`. As per the petition, the victim was falsely implicated in a criminal case by police in Puzhal police station, Chennai, on the basis of a false complaint of cheating by one Sivakumar. On 20 December 2013, at about 3 am, Babu Rajendra Bose, inspector, and Mani, sub inspector of Puzhal police station, took the victim to police station and locked him up. He was forced to remove all his clothes and subjected to inhuman treatment. Police asked him to settle the loan to tune of Rs 4 lakh allegedly taken from Sivakumar. They also alleged that he had taken 4 and half sovereign of gold rings, a 2 sovereign gold bracelet and a 2 and half sovereign of gold chain from Sivakumar. Police locked him up in the cell at the police station for two days till 4 pm on 22 December. Thereafter, he was produced at the judicial magistrate’s residence at Velachery at about 6.45 p.m. On the way to Puzhal jail the police took him to a secluded place near the police station and again assaulted him. He sustained injuries.

The policemen denied all the allegations. However, after considering evidences, Judge D. Jayachandran held that Rajinikanth was falsely implicated in the criminal case and illegally arrested by Babu Rajendra Bose and Mani and remanded to judicial custody. This amounts to violation of human rights of the complainant, the SHRC held.

Case 6: Tamil Nadu SHRC awards Rs 2.5 lakh compensation to Mr. Arunkumaran, a victim of illegal arrest, arbitrary detention and ill treatment[54]

In November 2018, the Tamil Nadu State Human Rights Commission recommended the Tamil Nadu State government to pay a compensation of R 2.5 lakh to Mr. Arunkumaran, who was erroneously arrested in connection with a case and meted out ill treatment. Awarding the compensation, SHRC member A. Chittaranjan Mohandoss stated: “This Commission carefully examined complaint, counter, depositions and all other records and it’s clear from the above that Mr. Arunkumaran faced humiliation and he was mishandled by the respondents has violated the basic human rights of the complainant.” The SHRC also directed that the State government that the Additional Chief Secretary to Government, Home Department, Secretariat, Chennai “shall take discretionary action against all the respondents.”

The SHRC further recommended the State government to recover the compensation amount from the guilty police officials viz. Inspector E. Rajeswari, Special Sub-Inspector R. Balakrishnan and Head Constable K. Francis (all attached to Central Crime Branch then) involved in the case.

The order was given in a petition filed by the victim, a resident of South West Boag Road in T. Nagar in Chennai. According to the complaint, the victim was allegedly dragged to a tempo van from his office on 11 August 2014 by the above named Central Crime Branch personnel and was brutally beaten up in custody. The cops also denied food and medication to the victim.[55]

Endnotes:

[1]. Police custody me yuvak ki maut, trauma center me sav chhod bhage policekarmi, hatya ka arop; Amar Ujala, 22 November 2018; available at: https://www.amarujala.com/uttar-pradesh/agra/young-man-died-in-police-custody-in-firozabad

[2]. Chori ki shak me Sikandra thane laye gaye yuvak ne dum tor diya, Amar Ujala, 22 November 2018; http://epaper.amarujala.com/agra-city/20181123/03.html?format=img&ed_code=agra-city

[3]. Kondhwa man claims torture, extortion by crime branch, The Pune Mirror, 29 November 2018; Available at; https://punemirror.indiatimes.com/pune/crime/kondhwa-man-claims-torture-extortion-by-crime-branch/articleshowprint/66856412.cms?prtpage=1

[4]. Udaipur police detain, torture minors for 3 days, The Times of India, 22 November 2018; Available at; https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/udaipur-police-detain-torture-minors-for-3-days/articleshowprint/66742053.cms

[5]. Villagers allege army atrocity, FIR lodged, The Arunachal Times, 21 November 2018; Available at; https://arunachaltimes.in/index.php/2018/11/21/villagers-allege-army-atrocity-fir-lodged/

[6]. Imphal boy dies in cop custody, The Times of India, 14 November 2018; Available at https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/imphal/imphal-boy-dies-in-cop-custody/articleshowprint/66615615.cms

[7]. Third case of cop brutality: Rights body issues notice, The Times of India, 30 November 2018; Available at; https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/third-case-of-cop-brutality-rights-body-issues-notice/articleshowprint/66872742.cms

[8]. 2 cops booked in custodial death case, CID to probe, Times of India, 6 November 2018; Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/2-cops-booked-in-custodial-death-case-cid-to-probe/articleshowprint/66518215.cms

[9]. Tamil Nadu native dies in police detention; Kin allege custodial torture, The New Indian Express, 4 November 2018; Available at: http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/2018/nov/04/tamil-nadu-native-dies-in-police-detention-kin-allege-custodial-torture-1894019.html

[10]. Day after youth’s suicide in lock-up, kin block highway, Tribune, 2 November 2018; available at: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/day-after-youth-s-suicide-in-lock-up-kin-block-highway/677545.html

[11]. SC slams Centre, states for ‘pathetic condition’ in jails, Outlook, 22 November 2018; available at: https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/sc-slams-centre-states-for-pathetic-condition-in-jails/1426207

[12]. Supreme Court slams primeval conditions in jails, observation homes, The Hindu, 22 November 2018; Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-slams-primeval-conditions-in-jails-observation-homes/article25569788.ece

[13]. Supreme Court slams primeval conditions in jails, observation homes, The Hindu, 22 November 2018; Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-slams-primeval-conditions-in-jails-observation-homes/article25569788.ece

[14]. Supreme Court slams primeval conditions in jails, observation homes, The Hindu, 22 November 2018; Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-slams-primeval-conditions-in-jails-observation-homes/article25569788.ece

[15]. Justice Goel & Lalit’s Visit Set To Improve Condition In Faridabad Jail, Observation Home, Livelaw.com, 13 July 2018; available at: https://www.livelaw.in/justice-goel-lalits-visit-set-to-improve-condition-in-faridabad-jail-observation-home/

[16]. NHRC proceedings dated 11 November 2018 in Case No. 33052/24/48/2017; available at: http://164.100.158.189/oldwebsite/display.asp?fno=33052/24/48/2017

[17]. NHRC proceedings dated 11 November 2018 in Case No. 33052/24/48/2017; available at: http://164.100.158.189/oldwebsite/display.asp?fno=33052/24/48/2017

[18]. Now, some inmates allege death threats from Raebareli jail staff, The New Indian Express, 28 November 2018; Available at; http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2018/nov/27/now-some-inmates-allege-death-threats-from-raebareli-jail-staff-1903939.html

[19]. Now, some inmates allege death threats from Raebareli jail staff, The New Indian Express, 28 November 2018; Available at; http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2018/nov/27/now-some-inmates-allege-death-threats-from-raebareli-jail-staff-1903939.html

[20]. Sunariya jail me band bandi ki bimari ke karan maut, Amar Ujala, 30 November 2018; available at: https://www.amarujala.com/haryana/rohtak/crime/71543524251-rohtak-news

[21]. Sandigdh paristhitiyon me kaidi ki maut; Amar Ujala, 29 November 2018; available at: https://www.amarujala.com/jammu/crime/61543433600-jammu-news

[22]. Undertrial dies in GH, relatives protest, The Hindu, 28 November 2018, Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/puducherry/undertrial-dies-in-gh-relatives-protest/article25609378.ece

[23]. Man accused in bank robbery dies in custody in Taloja, The Hindu, 29 November 2018; Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/man-accused-in-bank-robbery-dies-in-custody-in-taloja/article25617770.ece

[24]. Undertrial prisoner ends life in Yerawada jail, The Times of India, 26 November 2018, Available at; https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/undertrial-prisoner-ends-life-in-yerawada-jail/articleshowprint/66817187.cms

[25]. Delhi: Tihar inmate found dead, kin allege murder, The Times of India, 23 November 2018; Available at; https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/inmate-found-dead-kin-allege-murder/articleshowprint/66778455.cms

[26]. Vicharadhin kaidi ne ki atmahatya, Patrika, 25 November 2018;  https://www.patrika.com/surat-news/suicides-by-the-prisoner-in-question-3759845/

[27]. Youth dies in jail, kin say was thrashed, The Tribune, 24 November 2018;

Available at; https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/youth-dies-in-jail-kin-say-was-thrashed/688027.html

[28]. Prisoner commits suicide in Dumka Central jail, 21 November 2018; Available at; https://www.devdiscourse.com/Article/other/262454-prisoner-commits-suicide-in-dumka-central-jail

[29]. Prisoner dies in Ludhiana jail, The Tribune, 17 November 2018, available at: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/prisoner-dies-in-ludhiana-jail/684368.html

[30]. Camp jail me band kaidi ki maut, hui magisterial janch, Dainik Bhaskar, Available: https://www.bhaskar.com/bihar/bhagalpur/news/the-prisoner39s-death-in-the-prison-jail-the-magisterial-inquiry-023709-3199037.html

[31]. Pilibhit me zila karagar me kaidi ki maut, parijano ne hatya ka arop lagaya, Jagran, 8 November 2018, available at: https://www.jagran.com/uttar-pradesh/bareilly-city-prisoner-dies-in-pilibhit-district-jail-family-charged-with-murder-18617079.html

[32]. Kaidi ki maut, parijano ne bataya jail prasashan ki kotahi, Jagaran, 6 November 2018, available at: https://www.jagran.com/jharkhand/dumka-prisoners-death-family-told-jail-authorities-18612617.html

[33]. Diabetic Taloja undertrial dies within 25 minutes of admission to hospital, Times of India, 5 November 2018; Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/diabetic-taloja-undertrial-dies-within-25-mins-of-admission-to-hosp/articleshowprint/66517211.cms

[34]. Maharashtra: Cop on the run after raping young rape complainant, Times of India, 24 November 2018; available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/thane/maharashtra-cop-on-the-run-after-raping-young-rape-complainant/articleshow/66779228.cms

[35]. Cop shift after assault cry, Telegraph, 13 May 2018, available at: https://www.telegraphindia.com/states/odisha/cop-shift-after-assault-cry/cid/1414430

[36]. Assault on girls: Nayapalli IIC, two women SIs transferred, Pragativadi, 13 May 2018; available at: http://pragativadi.com/assault-on-girls-nayapalli-iic-two-women-sis-transferred/

[37]. OHRC seeks report on ‘torture’ of two sisters at police station, The Hindu, 15 May 2018; available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/ohrc-seeks-report-on-torture-of-two-sisters-at-police-station/article23886603.ece

[38]. Assault On Girls: OHRC Directs 3 Police Officials To Depose On July 10, Odisha TV, 29 June 2018; available at: https://odishatv.in/odisha/assault-on-girls-ohrc-directs-3-police-officials-to-depose-on-july-10-305498

[39]. Cop Accused Of Sexual Predation Of Minor: NHRC Seeks Report, The Samaja, 27 October 2018; available at: http://english.samajalive.in/cop-accused-of-sexual-predation-of-minor-nhrc-seeks-report/

[40]. Ibid

[41]. CBI begins probe in 2015 Jharkhand encounter, The Times of India, 20 November 2018; Available at; https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/cbi-begins-probe-in-2015-jharkhand-encounter/articleshowprint/66712185.cms

[42]. Rapur Dalit torture: Hyderabad High Court issues notices to Chief Secretary, DGP, The New Indian Express, 15 November 2018; available at: http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/andhra-pradesh/2018/nov/15/rapur-dalit-torture-hyderabad-high-court-issues-notices-to-chief-secretary-dgp-1898508.html

[43]. Hashimpura massacre a “targeted killing” by police HC 16 former cops given life term, The Week, 31 October 2018; Available at: https://www.theweek.in/wire-updates/national/2018/10/31/del79-ldall%20hashimpura.html

[44]. Monthly salient statistics of cases registered/disposed by NHRC during October 2018, National Human Rights Commission, Data as on 15 November 2018; available at: http://nhrc.nic.in/complaints/human-right-case-statistics

[45]. Monthly salient statistics of cases registered/disposed by NHRC during October 2018, National Human Rights Commission, Data as on 15 November 2018; available at: http://nhrc.nic.in/complaints/human-right-case-statistics

[46]. Proceedings in NHRC Case No. 4465/18/16/2018; available at: http://164.100.158.189/display.asp?fno=4465/18/16/2018

[47]. Eviction from forestland: NHRC seeks ATR from SHRC, The Pioneer, 17 September 2018; https://www.dailypioneer.com/2018/state-editions/eviction-from-forestland–nhrc-seeks-atr-from-shrc.html

[48]. Eviction from forestland: NHRC seeks ATR from SHRC, The Pioneer, 17 September 2018; https://www.dailypioneer.com/2018/state-editions/eviction-from-forestland–nhrc-seeks-atr-from-shrc.html

[49]. Eviction from forestland: NHRC seeks ATR from SHRC, The Pioneer, 17 September 2018; https://www.dailypioneer.com/2018/state-editions/eviction-from-forestland–nhrc-seeks-atr-from-shrc.html

[50]. Cop attack on lawyers: NHRC wants ATR from Govt, The Daily Pioneer, 10 October 2018; available at: https://www.dailypioneer.com/2018/state-editions/cop-attack-on-lawyers–nhrc-wants-atr-from-govt.html

[51]. NHRC orders govt to pay, The Telegraph, 8 February 2018; available at: https://www.telegraphindia.com/states/odisha/nhrc-orders-govt-to-pay/cid/1508282

[52]. Custodial death: SHRC directs 4 cops to pay Rs 10 lakh, The Deccan Chronicle, 22 November 2018; Available at; https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/crime/221118/custodial-death-shrc-directs-4-cops-to-pay-rs-10-lakh.html

[53]. Chennai: 2 cops to pay man Rs 1Lakh for slapping false case, torture, The Deccan Chronicle, 15 November 2018; Available at; https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/151118/2-cops-to-pay-man-rs-1lakh-for-slapping-false-case-torture.html

[54]. SHRC orders police to pay penalty, The Hindu, 16 November 2018; Available at; https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/shrc-orders-police-to-pay-penalty/article25510947.ece

[55]. Tamil Nadu government asked to pay Rs 2.5 Lakh to victim of police brutality, The New Indian Express, 16 November 2018; Available at; http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2018/nov/16/tamil-nadu-government-asked-to-pay-rs-25-lakh-to-victim-of-police-brutality-1898864.html

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